Plottegg Plots 1980-2000
Neue Galerie am Landesmuseum Joanneum, Sackstrasse 16, A-8010 Graz So. 17. 12. 2000 - 7.1. 2001, Di. - So. 10 - 18 Uhr
 
 
 
 
 

Eröffnung Samstag 16. 12. 2000 17:00 Uhr
 
 
 
 
 

Kurator: Peter Weibel                                                        Prints: Arne Böhm

 ........... „Wo die Formen nicht mehr soll offensichtlich komplett vorhanden Die Präsentation für das Auge ist augenblicklich präsent Das BINÄRE HAUS selbst hat keine das ausschauen versteht kein Pendant generiert Also eine Mischungen sind Formüberlagerungen Formentwicklungen Simulation Dimension selbst ohne Ort in Umraum ohne Standpunkt Formveränderungen sie überall anzutreffen nicht hereditär Das BINÄRE HAUS ist gegenstandslos entmaterialisierte Architektur kennt keine vorgefaßten Bilder Die CPU agiert dieser Text # 1152512 B, 8556 Z, 115 Z, Projektanalyse zwei Auffälligkeiten: 18 emeritierte Professoren Ein binäres Haus ist zu autonomer Architektur baubar untendenziös Sie benötigt nicht gibt es keine Gewohnheiten Architekturtheorie als Folge der CAD-Impulse architekturspezifische Programme Die CPU produziert Analogsystem zu der Planungsmethode in einem zumal das convert Wegerln endlos bei gleicher Qualität Die Abstraktion soll Die Folgen sind ephemer Im binären Haus leben Architekten gut: möglichst lange aufrecht erhalten bleiben Striche werden in der INTERAKTION decodiert Zusätzliche Formulierungen können im recycling gefunden werden Das BINÄRE HAUS deklariert sich zu.“ ..........

vgl.: Manfred Wolff-Plottegg & CPU 80386, in: README.1ST / UP DATE, generierter Text, schon am 2.Oktober 1991 um 10:52 Uhr



  „Plotteggs Programm“:
........... „Am Beispiel des Programms von Manfred Wolff-Plotteggs binärer Architektur kann man erkennen, wie genetische Algorithmen, gleichsam als Erzwingungsmethode, die Architektur als sich selbst organisierendes System ohne persönliche Handschrift generieren, ein intelligentes Axiom vorausgesetzt. ...............
Algorithmische Handlungsanweisungen als Planungsmethode führen zu einer prozeßhaften Architektur, zur Vorstellung, daß Architektur eben nicht mehr Architektur ist, sondern ein einfacher Vorgang, der zur Architektur führt. Was diesen Algorithmus bedingt, steuert ebenfalls ein Algorithmus, denn für den Planungsprozeß selbst werden Algorithmen quasi als Betriebssystem entwickelt und für die zu bauende Architektur entsprechende Anwenderprogramme, die ebenfalls Algorithmen sind. Die Vorstellung eines Algorithmus als Betriebssystem der Architektur überwindet auch das tradierte Paradoxon von Planungen: Plane ohne festzulegen! Architektur als Betriebssystem ist Planen auf höherem Niveau, Architektur begibt sich auf die systemtheoretische Metaebene.
Dieser Algorithmus ist ein Programm. Hierbei sehen wir bereits das charakterische und avantgardistische der Vorgangsweise von Plottegg, eben daß ein Programm eingesetzt wird, eine Software statt einer Hardware. ............... Hier erfolgt auch die Erlösung von der berühmten Sucht, in der sich Architekten üben und mit der sie gewöhnlich im Inferno landen, nämlich von der Sucht nach dem Detail.
Der Architekt kümmert sich um das Programm, d.h. einen Code, mit dem Elemente manipuliert werden.
Es handelt sich bei Plotteggs Programm um eine Revolte gegen den Code der Architektur, erstens durch paradoxe Algorithmen und zweitens durch neue paradoxe Interpretationen von vorhandenen Algorithmen.
Ansatz einer Architektur, die jegliche Referenz zurückweist. Hybridarchitektur ist keine Architektur, die das Reale referenziert, sondern eine Architektur, die in linguistischen Codes operiert, aber innerhalb dieser linguistischen Operationen eben nicht Sinn stiftet durch externe Beziehungen, sondern Sinn stiftet durch interne Beziehungen. Es zeichnet sich ab, was wir heute autokatalytische Systeme nennen, selbstgenerierende Systeme, sich selbst erregende evolutionäre Spiele architektonischer Elemente und Codes. Eine weitere Quelle der Produktivität bilden die genetischen Algorithmen und die präzise und innovative semantische Analyse derselben, welche sich der Architektur nicht als vorhandene Formelsprache des Bauens, sondern als Interpretation annähern. Interpretation, Neu-Interpretation vorhandener Codes und abweichende Lesarten von Algorithmen sind bedeutende Generierungsregeln und Verfahren des Plotteggschen Programmes.
Das ist eine vollkommene Subversion bisheriger architektonischer Codes. ............................
vgl.: Plottegg /  Weibel, in: Architektur Algorithmen. Passagen. Wien 1996



Neuronal Architecture Processor by Manfred Wolff-Plottegg & Wolfgang Maass
(Prototype 1999 / update 2000) Programming: Harry Burgsteiner  / Andreas Gruber (Interdisciplinary Team / University of Technology / Graz)
 
 

PC 1 (screenshot of structure)
Spike Trains Demo / download

PC 2 (short animated gif)
neuron arch processor (QT-mov 7.441 KB)


 

 How to generate architecture directly out of neuronal spikes!

Processor 1 simulates 3 biological neurons. The "spike train" output is transmitted to Processor 2. A script, simulating a "DNA-transcription", transforms the incoming spike trains into data sets for 3-D solids: by autolisp the "genes" of the spike train ("DNA") are transformed into autocad commands. Thus the incoming spike-trains permanently generate new solids.
This installation is an experimental set-up to demonstrate a principle and to prove our thesis on digital creativity. The principle is the following equation:
A sequence of pulses (spike trains) in biological organisms = binary streams of signs (bit strings) = data (coordinates, vectors) interpreted as geometric bodies (solids). This equation brings together three spheres of reality that are traditionally considered as distinct:
- the world in our head: information, imagination and ideas in the way they are actually coded in our brain
- the world of digital data processing, represented by binary streams of signs as communication vocabulary between digital processors
- the world of generating new images / spaces / architecture
These three spheres of reality are brought together under the common denominator of information processing. Thus the installation demonstrates that the generation of images / spaces / architecture must no longer be perceived as anthropocentric / expressionistic. Through the use of the computer it is possible to emancipate oneself from established patterns of behavior, evalutation and production.
The installation consists of two digital processors that communicate with each other, the output of each of them is projected by a beamer.
Processor 1 simulates the atomic units for information processing in our brain: circuits consisting of nerve cells (neurons) that are connected by synapses (shown as blue triangles). The biological neurons that are here simulated communicate with other neurons by sudden increases in electrical potential (spikes): at certain points in time, the voltage rises instantaneously in the soma of the neuron (demonstrated through color changes of the neuron), and subsequently falls equally quickly, approximately one millisecond later. These sudden voltage changes are transmitted to other neurons through axons (demonstrated in the installation by moving white bars that represent spikes). This constitutes an original version of the digital codes used by nature in our brain: every single spike is indeed such that at any point in time there is either a spike or no spike, - there being no such thing as a half or quarter spike. Information is encoded in the distances between the spikes, corresponding to the distances between 1's in a bit string.
Every neuron in our brain receives spike trains as inputs, i.e. sequences of spikes in time, sent by other neurons. In particular, sensorial perceptions – e.g. all built forms visually perceived by us – are coded in the form of spike trains before they reach the neurons in our cerebral cortex. In our experimental set-up, the neural circuit receives 4 spike trains as input. Spike trains Bio 1 and Bio 2 are real spike trains from neurons belonging to the visual region in the brain of monkeys, as recorded by brain  researchers (Krueger and Aiple). Instead of a monkey, the data could be taken directly from visitors without a noticeable difference. As for the other 2 spike trains, they consist of streams of pulses (spike trains) by means of which the viewer gets into direct contact with the neural circuit: the viewer can generate these spike trains by pressing keys on a keyboard (instead of getting directly wired).

In a biological neuron, some of the incoming spike trains have a stimulating effect (e.g. they increase its readiness to fire) whereas in others they have an inhibiting effect (e.g. they reduce its readiness to fire). Accordingly, in our installation, some spike trains have stimulating effects, while others have inhibiting effects on the simulated biological neuron. The output spike train is recoded as a binary code, i.e. as a sequence of 1's and 0's (1 = one spike, 0 = no spike), and in this form, which is easily understandable to all artificial computing machinery, is it transmitted to Processor 2.
Processor 2 is a form generator, which uses the binary codes coming from Processor 1 to control a chain of commands: by means of a script, the incoming spike trains are so to speak transformed into data sets for 3-D solids which are then represented graphically. Processor 2 interprets the incoming data from Processor 1 in order to control a programme, by selecting and fixing the parameters in the chain of available commands. The core software, the mathematical-geometric potential of the 3D vector-program and the controlling script, are not changed by the incoming data from Processor 1. These invariants impose overall patterns on the generated pictures, similarly to the way in which the invariants of our individual human visual apparatus and brain impose overall patterns to the world of images which are perceived and reproduced by us, patterns of which we are not generally aware.

One can compare the interplay of random factors and fixed rules in the generation of images through the two processors with the functioning of a genetic system. Similarly to a DNA transcription, Processor 2 offers a chain of genetic elements (= commands), whose reading matrix filters out of the spike trains the RNA as edited information. The traditional procedure of anthropocentric creative design of built form is - according to our theory - shifted to the definition of a genome, which in turn generates new built forms.

The experiment shows that relatively few bits, represented by the stream of pulses of a single neuron, have sufficient complexity to produce designs for extremely diverse and sometimes even astonishingly novel visual creations. The same is true for the operators of the script, based on simple geometric commands: polyline, extrude, union, intersect, rotate, etc.

In this installation, the simulated biological neuron and genome are of an extreme simplicity compared to the information processing capacity of their biological counterpart. A neuron in our brain is not fed with spike trains from only 4 other neurons or sensors, but simultaneously receives 5000 to 10000 spike trains as inputs. Furthermore, the typical frequency of these spike trains is not on the order of 0,1 Hz, as in this installation, but on the order of 50 Hz. The processing of information in a biological neuron is 500 times faster than in this installation, in fact so fast that one could not follow the real spike trains with the naked eye.

This is also the reason why the visualization frequency of Processor 2 is reduced to a perceivable level.
The readability of development / growth / movement becomes possible as a sequence of single frames (image rate < 15 i/sec). Furthermore, it is not only one neuron that is processing and producing images in our brain, but about 40 different brain regions of more than 1010 (= 10 000 000 000) neurons. These 1010 neurons are interconnected by means of approximately 1014 links (axons, synapses and dendrites). The total length of these "wires" within only one cubic millimeter of grey matter in our cerebral cortex already reaches a length of approximately 4 km. This gives a rough idea of the complexity of the "data processor'' in our head. The controlling script of the form processor we have used (which has approximately 20 lines, uses 30 exec_commands, 256 colours/8bit, etc.) is of a similar simplicity when compared to the human genome (100.000 genes, 109 elements, etc.).

Nevertheless we can already draw the following observations from this simple experimental set-up:
(1) unforeseen results arise even out of a few elements / small numbers
(2) they lie within a spectrum inherent to the system
(3) different bit-string inputs (be it from monkeys, visitors, keyboard-strokes, light sensors or generated data sets) do not affect the characteristics of the system and the unforeseen nature of its results
(4) modifications of the output can be obtained through modifications of the program (script)
Despite the relatively low degree of complexity of this Neuronal Architecture Processor prototype, the results are more differentiated than those arising out of a traditional analogue architectural production (under the same base conditions). This has consequences for our understanding of art, architecture and human versus machine/digital creativity: it proves our thesis that creativity (in this case production of architectural images) is the result of a „neuronal machine„ and as such can be released from the brain.

LINKS:

For further information about spiking neurons we refer to the article "Das menschliche Gehirn: nur ein Rechner?"  by Wolfgang Maass in: R. E. Burkard, W. Maass, P. Weibel, eds., Zur Kunst des Formalen Denkens, 209-233. Passagen Verlag (Wien), 2000;  The code for the shown simulation of a neural circuit was written by Harry Burgsteiner and Thomas Natschläger (with partial support by the Land Steiermark). It runs on any PC, and can be downloaded.

Further info about computing & architecture see some of Plottegg´s sites
 

"Architektur Algorithmen"

Computer Generated Architecture

"The Binary House"


 



 ............ „Nur wer den sogenannten Plotteggschen Code besitzt, hat die Fähigkeit, entweder die beiden Systeme wahrnehmungskritisch zu trennen oder sie als neues und zwar sehr aufregendes ästhetisches System zu erfahren. Das subversive gestaltpsychologische Moment besteht in der Einführung eines aggressiven Formelements von besonderer visueller Resistenz, das die historische, vor allem vom konventionellen Landschaftsgenuß abhängige Harmonie in Frage stellt. ....... Mein sechster Sinn, sozusagen meine Plotteggnase, hatte mich nicht im Stich gelassen.“   ............

Friedrich Achleitner, in: Die Plotteggs kommen. Sonderzahl. Wien 1995
 

Plakat F. AchleitnerPlakat: P. Zimmermann


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Hybrid Architektur
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Krematorium Linz
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Plotteggs in arrivo
TU-Wien Studentenarbeiten
neuronaler Architekturgenerator
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Neue Galerie
am Landesmuseum Joanneum
Graz, Sackraße 16, A- 8010 Graz
Tel.: ++43 316 82 91 55, Fax: ++43 316 81 54 01
e-mail: post@neuegalerie.stmk.gv.at
http://www.neuegalerie.at
Kurator: Peter Weibel
Layout / photos: Arne Böhm
Print: styria Printshop Graz